Arranged by order of appearance.

All Sources Recommended reading
The Arab Conquest of Egypt
Author: Alfred J. Butler
The standard and only modern scholarly source on the Arab conquest of Egypt. Meticulous scholarship, and excellent writing. This book is a must of anyone wishing to study the history of Egypt.
Recommended Read!
Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests
Author: Walter E. Kaegi
How and why the Byzantine empire lost many of its most valuable provinces to Islamic conquerors in the seventh century, provinces that included Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Armenia. It investigates conditions on the eve of those conquests, mistakes in Byzantine policy toward the Muslims, the course of the military campaigns, and the problem of local official and civilian collaboration with the Muslims. It also seeks to explain how after some terrible losses the Byzantine government achieved some intellectual rationalization of its disasters.
Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture
Author: J. F. Haldon
This book presents an analytical account of major developments within Byzantine culture, society and the state in the period from c.610-717.
Ecclesiastical Histories of John, bishop of Ephesus
Author: John, bishop of Ephesus (author), R.P. Smith (translator)
John of Ephesus (or of Asia) (c. 507 – c. 588) was a leader of the early Syriac Orthodox Church in the sixth century and one of the earliest and the most important historians to write in Syriac. His wrote a detailed account of the ecclesiastical events which happened in 571-588.
Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam
Author: Fred Donner
This book offers a lucid and original vision of how Islam first evolved. He argues that the origins of Islam lie in what we may call the "Believers' movement" begun by the prophet Muhammad―a movement of religious reform emphasizing strict monotheism and righteous behavior in conformity with God's revealed law. The Believers' movement thus included righteous Christians and Jews in its early years, because like the Qur'anic Believers, Christians and Jews were monotheists and agreed to live righteously in obedience to their revealed law. The conviction that Muslims constituted a separate religious community, utterly distinct from Christians and Jews, emerged a century later, when the leaders of the Believers' movement decided that only those who saw the Qur'an as the final revelation of the One God and Muhammad as the final prophet, qualified as Believers.
The Early Islamic Conquests
Author: Fred Donner
In this contribution to the ongoing debate on the nature and causes of the Islamic conquests in Syria and Iraq during the sixth and seventh centuries, Fred Donner argues for a necessary distinction between the causes of the conquests, the causes of their success, and the causes of the subsequent Arab migrations to the Fertile Crescent.
The Prophet and the age of the Caliphate
Author: Hugh Kennedy
An accessible history of the Near East from c.600-1050AD, the period in which Islamic society was formed. Beginning with the life of Muhammad and the birth of Islam, Hugh Kennedy goes on to explore the great Arab conquests of the seventh century and the age of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.
Recommended Read!
The Cambridge History of Egypt, Vol. 1: Islamic Egypt, 640-1517
Author: Carl F. Petry (Editor)
A book attempting to discuss the period from the Arab invasion in 640 to the Ottoman conquest in 1517. It opens with a discussion of the preceding centuries to illustrate the legacy of ancient Egypt, and then progresses chronologically according to the major dynastic episodes. The combination of political history and contemporary theory makes the book difficult to read. Unfortunately, some of the chapter authors seem to completely dismiss the existence of Copts in Egypt.
The fiscal administration of Egypt in the early Islamic period
Author: Kosei Morimoto
A very detailed book looking at taxation and economic policy of the early Islamic caliphates. Difficult to read and access, however covers the topics of Jizya and land taxes like no other book.
A Brief History of Money in Islam and Estimating the Value of Dirham and Dinar (Academic paper)
Author: Zarra-Nezhad, Mansour
A paper looking at the value of dinars and dirhams - used to put the jizya tax in perspective.
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